This article illustrates the disproportionate financial burden of high cigarette excise taxes on low-income smokers. Smoking prevalence varies considerably by income, with a rate for the lowest income group that is more than twice that of the highest income group, both in New York and nationally. Using data from the New York and national Adult Tobacco Surveys from 2010–2011, estimates were made on how smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and share of annual income spent on cigarettes vary by annual income (less than $30,000; $30,000–$59,999; and more than $60,000). The sample includes 7,536 adults and 1,294 smokers from New York and 3,777 adults and 748 smokers nationally. The lowest income group spent 23.6% of annual household income on cigarettes in New York (up from 11.6% in 2003 & 2004) and 14.2% nationally. Although high cigarette taxes are an effective method for reducing cigarette smoking, they can impose a significant financial burden on low-income smokers.